A clash between the principles of territorial integrity and self-determination is occuring in the Caucasus. Armenians of Nagorno- Karabakh Autonomous Region, part of Azerbaijan since 1923, seek independence or transfer of the region to Armenia.
Armenians comprise a majority in Karabakh and have different culture, religion, and language than the Azerbaijanis. Azerbaijan seeks to preserve its national integrity. Sharp differences between Armenians and Azeris hinder mediation. The disagreement is expressed over history, goals, casualties, cease-fires and the roles of outsiders. The dispute is characterized by violence, charges and countercharges. The explosive situation heightened international concern and demands for action by international organizations and states. Other nations are also involved. The threat that the conflict poses to world peace have ensured continuing congressional interest in the issue. This detailed study aims at giving an objective view of the genesis of the present conflict, analysing the history and geopolitics of the Nagorny Karabakh Autonomous Region from antiquity to the twentieth century and its Right to State Independence According to International Law, based on expert study, expert reports and international documentary material.