CHAPTER 14 THE ESTABLISHMENT OF SOVIET POWER IN TRANSCAUCASIA. THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF THE KARABAKH AND NAKHICHEVAN ANNEXATION TO AZERBAIJAN (1920-1923)

REFERENCE MATTER TO CHAPTER 14

1. Ronald Suny “The Revenge of the Past Nationalism, Revolution and the

Collapse of the Soviet Union,” Stanford, p.42 (further R. Suny)

2. Richard G. Hovhannissian “Armenia and the Caucasus in the Genesis of the

Soviet-Turkish Entente”. International Journal of Middle East Studies, p.47

R. Suny, p.91.

3. V. Bartold “Compositions”, v.2, p.873

4. Ennaitollah Reza “Azarbaijan and Arran”, 1994 Yerevan, p.153

5. Ahmade Kiasravi “Azarbaijan’s History for 18 Years”, v.2 Tehran 1978, p.873

6. H.H.P.P.K.A.F. 200,b.4, p.17

7. S.M. Kirov “Articles, Speeches, Documents”, M.1930, p.144

8. M.L.I.K.K.A. F.64. I.1, b.5, p.19

9. See p.4

10.M.L.I.K.K.A. F.64,1.2, b.5, p.80

11. B. Ulubabian “The Artsakh Struggle for Existence”, b.1. Yer. 1994. p.103

12. USSR H.H.P.P.K.A.F. 13, p.4, B.496, p.142

13. Messenger of Armenian Archives, 1967, N3, d.N11, p.76

14. “Communist”, periodical, Yer., Dec.7, 1920

15. G.O. Orjonikidze “Articles and speeches”, M., 1956, p.142, “Pravda” news.

Dec.4, 1920

16.H.H.P.P.K.A.F. 114, I.1, b.45, p.15

17.M.L.I.K.K.A. F.64, 1.2, b.11, p.281

18. T. Kocharly “The Essential Definition”, Baku Worker.

D. Guliev “Serving Truth not Ambitions”, Baku Worker, 1989, July 12

D. Guliev “The Attitude of Internationalism”, Baku Worker, July 14, 1988

19. Hr. Simonian “During the Tragedy”, Garun, mag. Yer; 1981, N4

M.L.I.K.K.A. F.558, I.1, b.5240, p.1

20. A. Scachko “Armenia and Turkey in the Forthcoming Conference”,

Nationalities’ life, per.,M., 1921, March 4

21. Ts.P.A.I.M.L., F2, b.1, I.24503

22. Ts.P.A.I.M.L., F2, b.1, I.24504

23. Armenia in the Documents of International Diplomacy and Soviet Foreign

Policy (1828–1923) Yer.,1972, p.501, further Documents

24.”Soviet Armenia”, Yer, June 19, 1921

25. Ts.P.A.I.M.PL. of the KPSUS.C., F.64, 1, X, p.p.1, 116, 124

M.L.I.K.K.A. F.17, 13, b.384, pp.66,67

26.”News”, mag. 1988, pp.10,13

27. Hr. Abrahamian “The Artsakh Struggle for Existence”, Yer.1991, p.57

28.M.L.I.K.K.A. F.1,2, b.1, p.23

29. Documents, p.100

30. Ibid…, p.129

31. Ibid…, pp.149, 151, 153

32. Documents, p.192

33. G. Mirjanian “Harraj”. per. January 7, 1988

34. H.H.P.P.K.A.F. 21,I.1, b.17, pp.102-103

35. “N.K.A.R in Soviet Family for 50 Years (1923-1973), Stepanakert, 1973, p.4

36. Ibid., p.11

Never fully secure in Baku, where Bolshevism had deep roots, the nationalists relied on foreigners, especially the Turks, to back them against the Reds. When the Red army marched into Baku in April 1920, there was little resistence. Tadeusz Swietochowski writes in a recent study of Azerbaijani national identity;

“While the intelligentsia experienced an evolution that took it in quick succession from pan-Islamism to Turkism to Azerbaijanism, the masses remained on the level of umma (an ancient Shumerian city state, III millenium BC, the Muslims of Transcaucasia saw themselves as part of the larger Muslim world, the umma), consciousness with its typical indifference to secular power, foreign or native. The idea of an Azerbaijani nation-state did not take root among the majority of the population; the very term nationalism was either not understood by them, or worse, it rang with the sound of a term of abuse, a fact the Communists exploited in their propoganda against the Azerbaijani Republic. This might help explain why the overthrow of the republic was amazingly easy. Even those who subsequently rebelled against Soviet rule did not fight for the restoration of the fallen regime.”1

Although Armenia and Georgia were still independent, but on the whole the power of the Transcaucasian region was in the hands of the Bolshevik Soviets, which quickly reached an understanding with the Anatolian Kemalists, who under Mustafa Kemal, known to the world as Ataturk, staged national recovery. On April 26 Kemal sent an official delegation to Moscow, to declare that Mustafa Kemal appreciated highly the role of Moscow in the struggle against imperialism, and that he was ready “to set up military campaign against the imperialist government of Armenia” at the same time “calling on Azerbaijan to “enter the Bolshevik state union.”2

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