1.”Ararat”, magazine, 1919, p.51, Leo “Selection of Works”, v2, p.51.

2. Constantine Porphyrogenitus, translated from the original, preface and

reference by Hrach Bartikian, Yerevan 1970, p.151 C.P. “About the

Ceremonies of Byzantine Court”, book II, ch.48.

B. Ulubabian “The Khachen Kingdom in X-XYI Centuries”, Yerevan, 1975,


3. A.Sh.Mnatsakanian “About the Albanian Literature”, Yerevan 1966 pp.77-78.

4. Tovma Artsruni and Unknown “History of the Artsruni House”, Yerevan 1985,

p. 298-299.

5. M. Kaghankatvatsi, p.266

6. B. Ulubabian, p.76.

7. M.Kaghankatvatsi, p.266.

9. Ibid, p.263.


11.Leo “Selection of Works”, v2, Yerevan 1967, p.58.

12.St.Orbelian “History of Siunik”, Yerevan 1968, p.257.

13. Leo, p.561.

14. Leo, p.571.

15.M.Kaghankatvatsi, p.264.

16. Leo, p.576. (He testified that the cathedral was turned into a mosk by the


17. M. Kaghankatvatsi, p.267.

18. St. Orbelian, p.257.

19. Leo, p.571.

20. Vardan Areveltsi (of the East) “Universal History”, Moscow 1861, p.198.

21. N. Adonts “The Glory of Bagratids”, Historical Research, Paris 1948, p.133.

B. Ulubabian, p.84. The princely house, called Sevortids, later was converted

to Islam, and ruled up to the first quarter of the nineteenth century.

22.”Ararat” magazine, “The Armenian Catholicos Anania about the Revolt of

Albanian House”, 1897, p.143.

23. Orbelian, p.240-248.

24.Stenley Len-Pull “The Muslim Dynasts”, p.294.

25. M. Urhaietsi “Chronology”, Yerevan 1973, p.152. This information is not

considered true by many historians. But the scholar Sedrak Barkhudarian,

investigating the ancient graveyards near Derbent, unearthed many royal

tombstones. The Armenians inhabited here during the period of Persian

Sassanids. A great army was deployed by them to guard the Derbent frontier.

The soldiers arrived here with their families. Their descendants, as the

Caliphate weakened, established an independent kingdom, which covered the

Lezgian territories (the present day Azerbaijan’s northern parts and

Daghestan’s southern parts).

See S. Barkhudarian, “The Armeno-Albanian Kingdom of Derbent”, “Historical-

Philological Magazine”, 1969, n.3. pp.125-147.

26. Enaitollah Reza “Arran and Azarbaijan”, Yerevan 1994, p.134.

27. Ahmade Kiasravi “Karvande Kiasravi”, Tehran 1977, p.328.

28. A. Lastivertsi, “History of Lastivertsi”, Tiflis,1912,p.17.

29. G.F. Herzberg “History of Byzantium”, Moscow 1987, p.227-228.

30. M. Gosh, Armenian Gandzak, Alishan, About Armenians, p.361.

31. K. Gandzaketsi “History of Armenia”, Yerevan 1961, p.117.

32. B. Ulubabian, p.95.

33. S. Anetsi “Selected Works of Historiographers”, p.117 Vagharshapat.

34. “About Armenians”, p.386, see B. Ulubabian, p.115. “The Catholicos Stone

is situated in Tonashen village on the river Tartar, in the Martakert district of

Karabakh Republic. Now it’s called Katoghikossassar.

35. S. Anetsi “Selected Works of Historiographers”, p.132.

36. B. Ulubabian, p.118.

37. Herkan is in Giulistan, as on p.387 of “About Armenians”, the Parris village

of Giulistan is mentioned.

38. N. Adonts “The Glory of Bagratids”, p.154.

39. B. Ulubabian, p.125.

40. A. Hovhanissian “Historical Episodes of Armeno-Russian relations”.

41. K. Gandzaketsi, p.163.

42. B. Ulubabian, p.134.

43. “Record-book of Armenian Manuscipts”, Y-XII centuries, Yerevan 1988,

p.242. “Book of Judgement”. See Mkhitar Gosh, Record-book, Yerevan 1988,


44. K. Gandzaketsi, p.215.

45. “The Letter of Catholicos Constantine to the King Hetum” Tiflis 1901,


46. B. Ulubabian, p.174.

47.H. Atcharian “Dictionary of Armenian Forenames”, v.III, p.51.

48. Ibid, v.IV, p.286.

49. Ibid, v.II, p.76.


51. B. Ulubabian, p.177.

52. K. Gandzaketsi, p.270.

53. A.L. Jakobson “The History of Medieval Armenian Architecture, the

Gandzasar Monastry, XIII Century”, “Research on the History of Culture of

Oriental Nations”. The Selection is dedicated to I. Orbeli, M.-L, 1960,


54. T.Toromanian “About the Influence of Armenian Architecture”, “Materials on

the History of Armenian Architecture”, II, Yerevan, 1948, p.25.

55. Ibid, p.226.

56. Ibid, p.235.

57. Ibid, p.235.

58. Ibid, p.248.

59. Ibid, p.243

60. M. Barkhudarian “Divan of Armenian Lithography”, v. Y, Yerevan 1982, p.38.

See B. Ulubabian, p.192.

61. K. Gandzaketsi, p.280.

62. M. Chamchian “History of Armenia”, v.3, Yerevan 1984, p.219.

63. K. Gandzaketsi, p.359.

64. Ibid, p.359.

65. The Georgian Sources about Armenia and Armenians, v.II, Yerevan 1936,


66. K. Gandzaketsi, p.373.

67. St. Orbelian, p.330.

68. Ibid, p.330.

69. Repository of Ancient Manuscrips (Matenadaran), manuscript number 387,

p.86, 9a.

70. K. Gandzaketsi, p.392.

71. H.D. Miklukho-Maklai “Geographical Composition, XIII century” (in Persian).

“Research Proceedings of the Institute of Orientology” v.IX, L., 1951.

72.Rashid ad-Din “Collection of Chronicles”, YIII, tr-ed by A.K. Arends, M.-L.,

1946, p.91.

73. L.H. Babayan, “The Armenian, Socio-economical and Political History of XIII-

XY Centuries”, Yerevan, p.375.

74. M. Chamchian, p.418.

At the end of the ninth century the weakening in the Abbacid inheritance arouse vivacity in the subordinative countries. The Caliphate was unable to command and keep armies in the farthest ends of its domain. The Armenian, Georgian and the native Albanian(Armenian) nobility was active in Transcaucasia. In 870-ies the revolt broke out against the Arabs in eastern Persia, under the leadership of Jakob (Saffi’s son). Ashot I Bagratuni was appointed “Prince of Princes” to rule over a vast administrative Unit named Arminiyya covering Georgia and the entire Albania. He was responsible for realizing the taxation in the mentioned territories.

The Byzantine Empire supported the centrifugal tendences against the Caliphate, intending to exercise his own influence on the area.

In 867 Basil I came to throne in Byzantium. He was Armenian by origin and as he assumed himself, a descendant of the Armenian Arsacid dynasty. Knowing that traditionally the Arsacid kings were ordained by the representatives of Bagratuni dynasty, he asked Ashot Bagratuni to enthrone him. Basil first founded the Macedonian (he was born in Alexandretta) or Armenian dynasty, which held the power for 160 years.

In 887 an Armenian delegation was sent to Baghdat. They asked the Caliph Motamid-Billah to recognize Ashot Bagratuni as king of Armenia. The Abbasid court approved the idea, considering Ashot Bagratuni a suitable candidate and sent a throne and other presents to the newly elected king. Ashot Bagratuni was crowned a king by the Armenian Catholicos Gevorg. Basil I sent presents to the king in his turn. Thus, Byzantium recognized the royal status of Armenia, although Basil I continued to apply to the Armenian monarch as “Prince of Princes”.

Thus, the largest of the Armenian lands achieved recognition of royal status from both the Caliphate and the Byzantine Empire. It was centred in Shirak under the Bagratuni dynasty. This was followed by Dizak and Khachen in southern Artsakh under the Arranshahikids, calling itself the “Kingdom of Albania”. Prince Hamam, whose Christian name was Grigor (Gregory), was enthroned as the king of Albania. He was the grandson of Shaki and Kambechan ruler Sahl Smbatian. It’s interesting to note that after 450 years of abolishment (in 428), monarchies were restored in Armenia and Albania. The kingdoms set up on the Artsakh territories (present day Karabakh) and Iberia, subsequently integrated as vassal states in the Bagratid kingdom of Armenia.

Iran also assumed royal power, achieving recognition of royal status.

The Atropateni governor Mohammed Apshin, showed enmity to the Bagratuni inheritance, trying to create a semi-independent situation. He was looking forward to a chance to occupy Armenia and Albania (Aghvank).

Soon Basil I died and was replaced by Leo YII, (888-912), Emperor of Byzantium. He was famous by the name Leo the Philosopher. He set up a new trading route to Arabia via Armenian territory. Dvin and Partav became commercial centres connecting the two ends of the world.

Smbat I Bagratuni replaced the deceased King Ashot in 892. The Atropateni governor did not like Smbat’s and Leo’s unification and launched a sudden attack on Dvin. Smbat won a victory over him. But Afshin had taken Catholicos Gevorg hostage. The Armenian king and nobility applied to the Albanian king Hamam-Grigor, who was in good relation with Afshin, and asked for his help. Hamam obtained the freedom of the Catholicos in exchange for a great ransom.

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