1.Georgian Chronology, 1207-1318, translated by P. Muradian, Yerevan 1971,


2.Hamid-Allah Mustewi of Gaswin, The Geographical Part of the Mushat-al-

Qulub, tr-ed by le Strange, G.Leyden, 1919, pp.173-174.

3. “Johann Schiltenburg’s Journey in Europe, Asia and Africa from 1394 to

1427”, tr-ed by F.Berup, Odessa, 1866, p.110.

The book was abbreviated and printed in Baku in 1984, the preface was written

by Z. Buniatov. The title was “Source for Azerbaijani History”. The proper name

“Armenia” was changed into “Azerbaijan” by Buniatov.

4. B. Ulubabian, p. 304.

5. Matenadaran, manuscript number 8211.

The first half of the fourteenth century witnessed the weakening of Mongol domination. The absense of centralizing policy of Mongol authorities on one side and the centrifugal tendences of khans and generals on the other, resulted in continuous internal wars and raids. The Mongol governors and warriors attacked each other’s domains, ravaged, burnt down and laid waste the entire land.

Armenian emigration from the homeland grew into a flood. The flourishing cities and villages were turned into heaps of ruins.

But the Utic and Artsakh highlanders managed to preserve their cities and fortresses, always hoping for the best. For their basic needs, the population relied upon their rich crops, their flocks and herds, their dense forests, which provided them with food, both in summer and in winter.

The conquerers used to winter in Mukhank, which from the second half of the fourteenth century was called “the Karabakh valley” and consequently the whole Artsakh land was called “Karabakh” (black garden) by the Tatars. Thus the name originated from that time.

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