CHAPTER 7 THE ARMENIAN SGHNAKHS (PROVINCES) IN THE STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE

REFERENCE MATTER TO CHAPTER 7

1. Leo, v.3-1. p.337.

2. M.Y Saint-Martin “Memories historiques of geograpiques sur L’Armenie”, t II,

Paris 1819, pp.479-485.

3. Leo, v.3-9, p.34.

4. Leo, p.37.

5. The letter is kept in Vatican. It has been translated into Latin by Polish scholar

Stepanos Roshka (Stepanosi Roska, Chronocles, Vienna, 1964, p.190). The

letter was published by Ezov as “Peter the Great’s Relations with the

Armenians”, SPB.1898, pp.2-6 (Ezov).

6. Ezov, pp. 19-20.

7. Yessayi Jalalian, “A short History of Albanian Country”, Shushi, 1831.

8. Leo, v.3-2, pp. 48-63.

9. Leo, v.3-2, p.12.

10. A”A Review of Deeds Related to the History of Armenian Nation, M 1833.

11. Leo, p.96.

12. Makar Barkhutareants, “History of Albania”, Vagharshapar 1902, IIed., p.43.

13. Ezov, p.247, ZEGE, C 3-2, 100.

14. Soloviov, “History of Russia”, v.18, p.29-30, ZEGE, 112.

15. Repository of Ancient Manuscripts, manuscript 8211.

16. Ibid, p.16.

17. Hakob Poghossian “History of Artsakh Province”, Repository of Ancient Manuscripts, manuscript 2734, p.3

18. Ash. Hovhannisian, “Episodes…”, Yerevan, 1959, ch.2, p.699.

19. Cath. Divan.

20. Yessayi

21. Yessayi, p.44.

22. Raffi.

23. M. Barkhutareants, “History of Albania”, v.2, p.43.

24. Ezov, p.340-341.

25. Yessayi, p.60.

26. Yessayi.

27. Leo.

28. G.A.Ezov, p.357.

29. V. Listsev “The Persian Compaign of Peter the Great”, M, 1951, p.59.

30. The landlord Chalabi was an unfortunate man, the 19 members of his family

were taken captive by the Lezgis, he hoped to find his family while carrying

out his mission of an ambassador, with the help of the Russians.

31. Ezov, p.365.

32. Ibid, p.365.

33. Leo, p.145.

34. A. Abrahamian.

35. Mohammad Khazim, Namehe Alam-areaye Nadezi. (Persian, origin.) v.1. M,

1960, p.99.

Hakob Papazian “Armeno-Iranian Treaty of 1726-1636 and the Political

Situation of Eastern Armenia During the Reign of Nadir Shah. “Banber

Yerevani Hamalsarani”, 1972, ii, p.92.

36. H. Papazian, LNG, 5, p.77.

37. Mohammad Khazin, v.1, pp.100-104.

38. A.A. Abrahamian “A page of the History of Transcaucasian People and

Armeno-Russian Relations”, Yerevan, 1953, p.145.

39. Ibid 40. Leo, v.3-2, p.150, Soloviov, p.73.

41. Hakob Papazian “Davit Bek’s Struggle Against the Ottoman Invasion and

his Relations with the anti-Turkish Iranian forces”, mag. “Patma

Banassirakan Handes”, 1987, I, p.92-93.

42. Leo.

43. Leo, v.3-2, p.160.

44. Ezov, p.334.

45. GAFKE, F, SRP, 1725, 5, 365.

46. Ezov, pp.420-421.

47. Leo,v.3-2, p.166.

48. Soloviov, p.74.

49. V. Abrahamian.

50. Ibid, p.439.

51. Leo, 3-3, p.171.

52. Armeno-Russian Relations in the First Half of the XVII Century Collection of

Documents, v.2, part 2, Yerevan 1967, p.273-274.

53. “The History of Davit Bek and the Armenian Wat of Ghapan”, Vagharsh,

1871, p.53.

54. Ibid, p.62.

55. Leo, 3-2, p.172.

56. Ibid, p.173.

57. Ezov, p.459.

58. On the way from Dastagir village pf Martakert district to the place Yeghakor,

in the place Ukhtapat, near the northern rampart of the chapel.

Barkhutarean “Divan of Armenian Lithography”, Yerevan 1982.

The unstable internal conditions led to a weakening of Persian domination in late seventeenth century. Unlike Shah Abbas the Great, his successors were weak and effeminate. Shah Sultan Hussein (1694-1722), for example, was busy feasting with his harem all the time, ignoring state affairs. The only means to fill the treasury was the raising of taxes. The population was leaning under extra taxes. Sooner or later this would lead the state to destruction.

It was due to this weakening of Persian authority that the superpowers of the time again turned to words Transcaucasia. With the weakening of Persia the Ottoman influence became stronger. They were looking for a chance to reconquer Transcaucasia, as well as the Azarbaijan(Atropateni) district of Iran. These territories broke the continuity of the Turkic world, stretching all the way from the Bosphorus to Central Asia, from the Meditarenian sea to Shikeria. The Turks probably longed for their native Altai too.

The Russian court also paid much attention to the situation in Transcaucasia. The Russian state didn’t want to lose the chance to expand. The Christian Armenia could become a stronghold for their further conquests and a means to realize Peter the Great’s military strivings. In this aspect Russia turned Armenia’s being Christian to advantage, as compared with Iran and Turkey. As such the Armenians and Georgians would believe in Russia’s “liberating mission”, thus assisting its imperial policy. The Armenians and Georgians had only to choose which of the lords was “better” Russian, Persian or Turkish. And as the Russians were right to calculate, they were aquainted with Persian and Turkish overlordship, but not with the Russian and that’s why the nation and the leading circles would look to Russia. Already in 1665, the meliks of Karabakh, with the desire for a national renaissance and the idea of recreating an independent national state allied to Georgia, addressed a letter to Russian King Alexei Mikhailovich, asking to free Armenia from foreign yoke. The population of north-eastern Armenia, where national traditions were completely maintained, and the sense of national identity was growing day by day, was especially active.

In 1678 a secret meeting was held in Echmiadzin. Six secular lords and six higher clergy took part in it. It was decided to send a delegation to Rome, headed by Catholicos of all Armenians Hakob with an agreement to adopt Catholicism. In return to this, Buzantium might adopt a policy of patronage towards Armenia, with further restoration of Armenian state.1 New diplomatic steps to this effect were taken in 1699, when in a letter addressed to the Pope of Rome, the Karabakh meliks gave the thorough details of the political circumstances and their intentions.2 The famous Prince Israel, who “descended from the prominent Prince Prrosh”, whose family was a junior branch of the Jalalian family, was to accompany the Catholicos to Rome.

But later the mission was carried out by his son Yavri. Firstly the Catholicos Hakob went to Tiflis, to consult the Georgian King about creating an Armeno-Georgian alliance, then left for Constantinople, where was met by the Cilician Armenian Catholicos Yeghiasar, on his way to Jerusalem and the two envoys of the Pope.

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